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閱讀 5098 次 歷史版本 0個 創建者:zc_zhouchao (2018/3/15 10:01:03)  最新編輯:zc_zhouchao (2018/3/15 10:01:03)
苦川楝子

中藥名

苦川楝子 

別名

金鈴子、苦楝子、楝子、楝樹果、川楝樹子、川楝實。

英文名

Toosendan Fructus。

來源

楝科植物川楝Melia toosendan Sieb. et Zucc.的成熟果實。

植物形態

落葉喬木,高達10米以上。樹皮灰褐色,幼嫩部分密被星狀鱗片。2回羽狀復葉,小葉5~11,有短柄,葉片狹卵形或長卵形,長4~7厘米,寬2~3厘米,先端漸尖,基部圓形,常偏斜,全緣或有疏小齒,幼時兩面密被黃色星狀毛,后僅主脈及葉面有小疏毛,圓錐花序腋生?;ㄝ?~6,花瓣5~6,紫色或淡紫色,雄蕊為花瓣的2倍,花絲連合成筒狀,子房上位,瓶狀,6~8室。核果橢圓形或近圓形,長15~3厘米,直徑1.3~2.5厘米,黃色或黃棕色,內果皮木質堅硬,通常有6~8棱。種子扁平,長橢圓形,長約1厘米,黑色?;ㄆ?~4月,果期9~11月。

產地分布

生于平原、丘陵或者栽培。分布于陜西、甘肅、河南、湖北、湖南、貴州、四川、云南等地。

采收加工

冬季果實成熟時采收,除去雜質,干燥。

藥材性狀

類球形。表面金黃色至棕黃色。頂端有花柱殘痕,基部凹陷,有果梗痕。外果皮革質,與果肉間常呈空隙,果肉松軟,淡黃色。果核球形或卵圓形,質堅硬,兩端平截,種子黑棕色。氣特異,味酸、苦。

性味歸經

性寒,味苦,有小毒。歸肝經、小腸經、膀胱經。

功效與作用

舒肝、行氣、止痛、驅蟲。屬理氣藥。

臨床應用

用量4.5~9克,煎湯內服,用治胸脅、脘腹脹痛、疝痛、蟲積腹痛。

藥理研究

阻斷神經肌肉接頭間的傳遞;驅蟲;抑菌。

化學成分

含驅蛔有效成分川楝素(toosendanin),以及多種苦味的三萜成分,苦楝子酮(melianone)、脂苦楝子醇(lipomelianol)、苦楝子酮,21-O-乙酰川楝子三醇(21-O-acetyltoosendantriol),21-O-甲基川楝子五醇(21-O-methyltoosendan-pentaol)、梣皮樹脂醇等成分。

使用禁忌

脾胃虛寒者忌服。

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